| |
CAR OBD2 Acronyms, Abbreviations, Jargon[특수 용어]
조회 92 | 07.16.2017  

CAR OBD2 Acronyms, Abbreviations, Jargon[특수 용어]

정비사 용, 자동차 진단 용어들

2V = Two (Venturi) Valve (two barrel carburetor)
2v = Two Valve (cylinder head)
2WS = Two Wheel Steer
4EAT = Four speed Electronic Automatic Transmission
4V = Four (Venturi) Valve (four barrel carburetor)
4v = Four Valve (cylinder head)
4WAS = Four Wheel Air Suspension
4WD = Four Wheel Drive
4WS = Four Wheel Steer
12v = 12 volt (electrical system)
16v = Sixteen valve (cylinder head)
AAT = Ambient Air Temperature
ABC = Active Body Control
ABS = Antilock Brake System
A/C = Air Conditioning
ACC = Adaptive Cruise Control
ACC = Automatic Climate Control
accel = Acceleration
accum = Accumulator
accy = Accessory
ACE = Active Cornering Enhancement
ACL / AC = Air cleaner
ACM = Airbag Control Module
ACM = Audio Control Module
ACT = Air Charge Temperature
ADAS = Advanced Driver Assistance System
ADC = Automatic Distance Control
ADL = Automatic Door Lock
AECM = Airbag Electronic Control Module
A/F = Air Fuel Ratio (see also AFR)
AFC = Air Flow Control
AFC = Air Fuel Control
AFR = Air Fuel Ratio (see also A/F)
AGVS = Automated Guided Vehicle System
AHLD = Automatic Headlamp Levelling Device
AHR = Active Head Restraint
AHS = Active Handling System
AIS = Automatic Idle Speed
ALC = Automatic Level Control
ALT = Alternator (see also GEN)
AMM = Air Mass Meter
AMT = Automated Manual Transmission
AOD = Automatic Overdrive
AOS = Automatic Occupant Sensing
API = American Petroleum Institute
APO = Accessory Power Outlets
APP = Accelerator Pedal Position
ARC = Active Roll Control
ARC = Automatic Ride Control
ARS = Automatic Restraint System
ASARC = Air Suspension Automatic Ride Control
ASCD = Auto Speed Control Device
ASF = Audi Space Frame
ASG = Automatic-Shift Gearbox
ASR = Acceleration Slip Regulation
ASTC = Automatic Stability and Traction Control
A/T = Automatic Transmission
ATC = Automatic Temperature Control
ATDC = After Top Dead Center
ATF = Active Transfer Case
ATF = Automatic Transfer Case
ATF = Automatic Transmission Fluid
ATSLC = Automatic Transmission Shift Lock Control
ATTS = Advanced Torque Transfer System
AWD = All Wheel Drive
AYC = Active Yaw Control
BARO = Barometric (pressure)
BAS = Brake Apply Sensor
batt = Battery
BBK = Big Brake Kit
BBV = Brake Booster Vacuum
BCM = Body Control Module
BHP = Brake Horsepower
BLW = Brake Lining Wear
BMAP = Barometric and Manifold Absolute Pressure
BP = Back Pressure
BPA = Brake Pedal Applied
BPA = Bypass Air
BPMV = Brake Pressure Modulator Valve
BPP = Brake Pedal Position
BPW = Base Pulse Width
BTCM = Brake Torque Control Module
BTDC = Before Top Dead Center
BTSI = Brake Transmission Shift Interlock
C3I = Computer Controlled Coil Ignition
CAA = Canadian Automobile Association
CAA = Clean Air Act
CAB = Controller, Antilock Brake
CAC = Charge Air Cooler
CAFC = Company Average Fuel Consumption (Canada)
CAFÉ = Corporate Average Fuel Economy (USA)
CASE = Cranking Angle Sensing Error
CC = Climate Control
CC = Coast Clutch
CC = Cruise Control
CCD = Chrysler Collision Detection
CCCD = Catalytic Converter Cool-Down
CCD = Computer Controlled Dwell
CCDIC = Climate Control Driver Information Center
CCFL = Cold-Cathode Flourescent Lamp
CCM = Central Control Module
CCM = Chassis Control Module
CCP = Climate Control Panel
CCS = Climate Controlled Seat
CCS = Coast Clutch Solenoid
CDA = Cylinder De-Activation
CDR = Chrysler Diagnostic Readout
CDR = Crash Data Retrieval
CDRV = Crankcase Depression Regulator Valve
CEL = Check Engine Light (see also MIL)
CEAB = Cold Engine Air Bleed
CEMS = Catalyst Efficiency Management System
CEMS = Carbureted Engine Management System
CFI = Central Fuel Injection (replaced with TBI)
CFI = Continuous Fuel Injection
cfm = cubic feet per minute
CG = Center of Gravity
CHMSL = Center High Mounted Stop Lamp
CID = Cubic Inch Displacement
CID = Cylinder Identification
CKP = Crankshaft Position
CL = Closed Loop
CLCC = Closed Loop Carburetor Control
CLS = Coolant Level Switch
CLTBI = Closed Loop Throttle Body Injection
CLNT = Coolant
CMC = Compressor Motor Controller
cmd = Command
cmdd = Commanded
CMFI = Central Multi-port Fuel Injection
CMP = Camshaft Position
CMVSS = Canadian Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
CNG = Compressed Natural Gas
CO = Carbon Monoxide
CO2 = Carbon Dioxide
comm. = Communication
cond = Condition
const = Constant
COP = Coil On Plug
COP = Computer Operating Properly
CP = Canister Purge
CPC = Camshaft Position Control
CPI = Central Port Fuel Injection
CPP = Clutch Pedal Position
CPS = Cam Profile Switching
CPS = Childseat Postioning Sensor
CPU = Central Processing Unit
CRR = Cool Running Rotor
CS = Charging System
CSC = Commercial Stripped Chassis
CSFI = Central Sequential Fuel Injection
CSI = Compression Sense Ignition
CTD = Content Theft Deterent
CTOX = Continuous Trap Oxidizer
CTP = Closed Throttle Position (switch)
CTS = Coolant Temperature Sensor
CV = Constant Velocity
CVN = Calibration Verification Number
CVRSS = Continuously Variable Road Sensing Suspenion
CVRTD = Continuously Variable Real Time Damping
CVT = Continuously Variable Transmission
CZS = Crash Zone Sensor
DAB = Delayed Accessory Bus
DAB = Driver AirBag (module)
DART = Diagnostic And Reprogramming Tool
dB = Decibels
dBA = decibels on A-weighted scale
DBB = Dual Bed Bead
DBM = Dual Bed Monolith
DC = Direct Current
DC = Duty Cycle
DCCSM = Dual Climate Controlled Seat Module
DCM = Door Control Module
DDM = Driver's Door Module
DDS = Deflation Detection System
DDS = Driver's Door Switch
DE = Drive End
dec = Decrement
DEC = Digital Electronic Controller
DERM = Diagnostic Energy Reserve Module
des = Desired
DFCO = Deceleration Fuel CutOff
DFI = Direct Fuel Injection
DGI = Direct Gasoline Injection
DI = Distributor Ignition
DIC = Driver Information Center
diff = Differential
DIM = Dashboard Integration Module
dis = Disable
DIS = Direct (aka Distributorless) Ignition System (replaced with EI)
disc = Disconnect
DISI = Direct Injection, Spark Ignition
DIST = Distributor
DIY = Do It Yourself
DLC = Data Link Connector
DLC = Diamond Logic Computer
DMCM = Driver Motor Control Module
DMM = Digital MultiMeter
DMSD = Drive Motor Speed and Direction
DOHC = Double Overhead Cam
DNR = Dolby Noise Reduction
DOL = Data Output Line
DPFE = Differential Pressure Feedback EGR
DPI = Dual Plug Inhibit
DRB = Diagnostic Readout Box
DRF = Deactivating Roller Follower
DRL = Daytime Running Lamps
DRR = Digital Radio Receiver
DRW = Dual Rear Wheel
DSCC = Distance Sensing Cruise Control
DSDA = Dual Stage Driver Airbag
DSG = Direct Shift Gearbox
DSI = Dual Stage Inflator
DSM = Driver's Seat module
DSO = Digital Storage Oscilloscope
DSP = Digital Signal Process
DSPA = Dual Stage Passenger Airbag
DSRC = Dedicated Short Range Commnication
DSS = Downshift Solenoid
DSST = Dunlop Self Supporting Tyre
DTC = Diagnostic Trouble Code
DTM = Diagnostic Test Mode
DTR = Digital Transmission Range
DTT = Diesel Transmission Technologies
DVOM = Digital Volt-Ohmmeter
E4OD = Electronic 4-Speed Overdrive
E10 = Ethanol 10 percent
E85 = Ethanol 85 percent
EA = Electronic Accelerator
EAC = Electronic Air Control (replaced with AIR)
EAIR = Electronic (secondary) Air Injection Reaction
EAS = Electrically Assisted Steering
EAS = Electronic Air Switching
EATC = Electronic Automatic Temperature Control
EBC = Electronic Brake Control
EBCM = Electronic Brake Control Module
EBD = Electronic Brake force Distribution
EBM = Electronic Brake Module
EBP = Exhaust Back Pressure
EBTCM = Electronic Brake and Traction Control Module
EC = Electrical Center
EC = Electronic Control
E&C = Entertainment and Comfort
ECA = Electronic Control Assembly (replaced with PCM)
ECC = Electronic Climate Control
ECD = Electronically Controlled Deceleration
ECI = Extended Compressor at Idle
ECL = Engine Coolant Level
ECM = Electronic Control Module
ECM = Engine Control Module
ECS = Electronic Crash Sensor
ECS = Emission Control System
ECT = Engine Coolant Temperature (Switch, Sensor)
ECU = Electronic Control Unit
EDF = Electric Drive Fan (relay)
EDIS = Electronic Direct Ignition System (replaced with EI)
EDR = Event Data Recorder
EDSR = Electronic Dealer Service (Investigation) Report
EEC = Electronic Engine Control
EEDS = Electric-Electronic Distribution System
EEPROM = Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memeory
EEVIR = Evaporator Equalized Values In Receiver
EFE = Early Fuel Evaporation
EFI = Electronic Fuel Injection
EFTA = Engine Fuel Temperature - Bank 1 Input DEGREES
EFTA V = Engine Fuel Temperature - Bank 1 Input VOLTS
EFTB = Engine Fuel Temperature - Bank 2 Input DEGREES
EFTB V = Engine Fuel Temperature - Bank 2 Input VOLTS
EGC = Electronic Gauge Cluster
EGO = Exhaust Gas Oxygen (replaced with O2S)
EGOG = EGO Ground
EGR = Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EGRBARO = Enable Baro Read instead of EGR pressure
EGRC = Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control
EGRCMDS = EGR Motor Commanded In Steps
EGRMC1 = EGR Motor Control Output Command
EGRMC2 = EGR Motor Control Output Command
EGRMC3 = EGR Motor Control Output Command
EGBMC4 = EGR Motor Control Output Command
EGRT = Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature (switch)
EGR TVV = Exhaust Gas Recirculation Thermal Vacuum Valve
EGRV = Exhaust Gas Recirculation Vent
EGRVR = EGR Valve Vacuum Control
EGTS = Exhaust Gas Temperature Switch (replaced with EGRT)
EHB = Electro-Hydraulic Brake
EHCU = Electronic Hydraulic Control Unit
EHOC = Electrically Heated Oxidation Catalyst
EHPA = Electro-Hydraulic Power Assist
EHPAS = Electric Hydraulic Power Assisted Steering
EHPS = Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering
EHTWC = Electrically Heated Three Way Catalyst
EI = Electronic Ignition (includes Distributorless Ignition System, formerly DIS)
ELC = Electronic Level Control
EM = Energy Management
EM = Engine Modification
EMAS = Engine Management and Analysis System
EMAT = Electro-Mechanical Automatic Transmission
EMB = Electromagnetic Brakes
EMB = Electro-Mechanical Brake
EMCC = Electronically Modulated Converter Clutch
EMF = ElectroMotive Force (voltage)
EMI = Electromagnetic Interference
EMR = Electronic Module Retard
EMR = Emission Maintenance Reminder
EMS = Engine Management System
EOBD = Enhanced On-Board Diagnostics
EOP = Engine Oil Pressure
EOT = Engine Oil Temperature
EOTF = Engine Oil Temperature Fault Detection
EOT V = Engine Oil Temperature Volts
EP = Exhaust Pressure
EPA = Environmental Protection Agency
EPACT = Energy Policy Act
EPC = Electronic Pressure Control
EPHS = Electrically Powered Hydraulic Steering
EPR = Exhaust Pressure Regulator
EPROM = Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EPS = Electric Power Steering
EPS = Electric Power Steering
EPS = Engine Position Sensor
EPT = EGR Pressure Transducer (replaced with PFE)
ERH = Extended Ride Height
ESB = Energy Storage Box
ESB = Expansion Spring Brake
ESC = Electrical Systems Controller
ESC = Electronic Spark Control
ESC = Electronic Suspension Control
ESC = Extended Service Contract
ESCM = Energy Storage Control Module
ESD = Electrostatic Discharge
ESM = EGR System Module
ESM = Electronic Steering Module
ESN = Electronic Serial Number
ESO = Engine ShutOff
ESOF = Electronic Shift On (the) Fly
ESP = Electronic Stability Program
EST = Electronic Spark Timing
ETBE = Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
ETC = Electronic Temperature Control
ETC = Electronic Throttle Control
ETC = Electronic Timing Control
ETCC = Electronic Touch Climate Control
ETR = Electronically Tuned Receiver
ETS = Enhanced Traction System
EUDC = Extra-Urban Driving Cycle
EUDC-LP = Extra-Urban Driving Cycle for Low Power vehicles
EV = Electric Vehicle
EVA = Electronic Vibration Analyzer
EVAP = Evaporative Emission
EVAPCPF = Evaporative Emissions Canister Purge Fault YES/NO
EVAPCV = Evaporative Emissions Canister Purge Vent Control
EVAPCVF = Evaporative Emissions Canister Purge Vent Fault
EVAPPDC = Evaporative Emissions Canister Purge Control %
EVAPPF = Evaporative Purge Flow Input VOLTS
EVIC = Electronic Vehicle Information Center
EVMV = Electric Vapour Management Valve
EVO = Electronic Variable Orifice
EVP = EGR Valve Position (sensor)
EVR = EGR Vacuum Regulator
EVTOP = Enhanced Tactical Vehicle Occupant Protection
EVTM = Electrical & Vacuum Troubleshooting Manual
EWMA = Exponentially Weighted Moving Average
EXH = Exhaust
F4WD = Full Time Four Wheel Drive
FABS = Flexible Auto Body System
FAF = Fan Air Flow
FANDC = Variable Speed Fan Duty Cycle %
FANVARF = Variable Speed Fan Output Fault
FBC = Feedback Carburetor
FC = Fan Control
FC = Friction Curve
FCM = Front Control module
FCP = Fuel Cell Partnership
FCU = Front Control Unit
FCV = Fuel Cell Vehicle
FDBK = Feedback
FDC = Fuel Data Center
FEAD = Front End Accessory Drive (belt)
FED = Federal (except California)
FEDS = Fuel Enable Data Stream
FEDS = Flexible Engine Diagnostic System
FEIC = Fuel Economy Integrated Counter
FET = Field Effect Transistor
FEX = Front Exchanger
FF = Flexible Fuel
FFCRS = Front-Facing Child Restraint System
FFFP = Fuel-Flexible Fuel Processor
FFH = Fuel Fired Heater
FFS = Fine-blanking and Finishing System
FFS = Flexible Fuel Sensor
FFV = Flexible Fuel Vehicle
FFWS = Fuel Filter Water Separator
FI = Fuel Injection
FICM = Fuel Injector Control Module
FIDO = Flame Ionization Detector Optimization
FIM = Fuel Indicator Module
FIPL = Fuel Injection Pump Lever
FIPT = Fuel Inlet Pressure Test
Fl = Front Left
FLI = Fuel Level Indicator Input percent
FLI V = Fuel Level Indicator Input VOLTS
FLO = Fast Light-Off
flr = Floor
FLVV = Fill Limit Vent Valve
FM = Frequency Modulation
FMEM = Failure Mode Effects Management
FMVSS = Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
FP = Fuel Pump
FPCM = Fuel injection Pump Control Module
FPDM = Fuel Pump Driver Module
FPF = Fuel Pump Output Fault
FPI = Fins Per Inch
FPM = Fuel Pump Monitor
FPR = Fuel Pump Regulator
FPRC = Fuel Pressure Regulator Circuit
FPS = Fast Pass Standard
FPSM = Fuel Pump Secondary Monitor
FPV = Ford Performance Vehicles
FR = Front Right
FRACAS = Failure Reporting And Corrective Action System
FRC = Forced
freq = Frequency
frnt = Front
FRP = Fuel Rail Pressure
FRS = Face Recognition System
FRV = First Response Vehicle
FSA = Field Service Action
FSDI = Four-Stroke, Direct Injection
FSI = Fuel Straight Injection
FSS = Forward Sensing System
FSVF = Fuel Solenoid Valve Fault
FSVM = Fuel Solenoid Valve Secondary Monitor
FT = Fuel Trim
FTP = Federal Test Procedure
FTP = Fuel Tank Pressure
FTPT = Fuel Tank Pressure Transducer
FUDC = Federal Urban Driving Cycle
FUELPW1 = Injector Pulse Width Bank 1
FUELPW2 = Injector Pulse Width Bank 2
FW = Flat Wire
fwd = Forward
FWD = Front Wheel Drive
GA = Gage
GA = Gravitational Acceleration
GAWR = Gross Axle Weight Rating
GCR = Global Concern Report
GCW = Gross Combined Weight
g/cyl = Grams per Cylinder
GCWR = Gross Combined Weight Rating
GDI = Gasoline Direct Injection
GEN = Generator
GENF = Generator Output Fault
GENFDC = Generator Field Control Output
GEM = Gasoline Engine Management
GEM = Generic Electronic Module
GFS = Generator Field Signal
GGT = Gas Guzzler Tax
GHG = GreenHouse Gas
GISMO = Geographic Information System, Mobile
GND = Ground
GOVN = Governor Module
GPCM = Glow Plug Control Module
GPS = Global Positioning System
GS = Garage Shift
g/sec = Grams per Second
GTL = Gas To Liquid
GVW = Gross Vehicle Weight
GVWR = Gross Vehicle Weight Rating
H = Hydrogen
H2DI = Hydrogen Direct Injection
H2O = Water
HAST = High Accelerated Stress Test
HB = Hatchback
HBA = Hydraulic Brake Assist
HBU = Hub Bearing Unit
HC = Hydrocarbons
HCCI = Homogeneous-Charge, Compression Ignition
HCM = Heating Control Module
HCM = Hybrid Control Module
HCU = Hydraulic Control Unit
HCV = Heavy Commercial Vehicle
H/CMPR = High Compression
HD = Heavy Duty
HDC = Heavy Duty Cooling
HDGV = Heavy Duty Gasoline-fueled Vehicle
HDR = High Data Rate
HD-UDDS = Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
HEC = Hybrid Electronic Cluster
HEDF = High Speed Electro Drive Fan (relay or circuit)
HEGO = Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen (sensor) (replaced with HO2S)
HEGOG = HEGO Ground (circuit)
HEPS = Hydraulic Electric Power Steering
HEUI = Hydraulic-actuated Electronically-controlled Unit Injector
HEV = Hybrid Electric Vehicle
HFC = High Fan Control
HFC = Hydraulic Fading Compensation
HFCF = High Speed Fan Control Fault
HFM = Hot Film Meter
HFP = High Fuel Pump
Hg = Mercury
Hi Alt = Hi Altitude
HICAS = High Capacity Actively Controlled Steering
HID = High Intensity Discharge
HIS = Horizontal Impact Sensor
hist = History
HLDT = Heavy Light-Duty Truck
HLOS = Hardware Limited Operating Strategy
HO = High Output
HO2S = Heated Oxygen Sensor
hp = Horsepower
HPDI = High Pressure Direct Injection
HPL = High Pressure Liquid
HPP = High Pressure Pump
HPS = Head Protection System
HPS = High Performance System
HPV = High Pressure Vapour
HPVS = Heat Pump Ventilation System
HRC = Headlamp Range Control
HAS = Head Side Airbag
HSC = High Swirl Combustion
HSCDS = High-Sensitivity Collision Detection System
HSDI = High-Speed Direct Injection
HSE = High-Speed Enrichment
HSEA = High Solar Energy Absorbing (glass)
HTCM = Heating-ventilation-air-conditioning Thermal Control Module
HTR11 = Bank 1 Upstream 02S Heater Control
HTR11F = Bank 1 Upstream 02S Heater Circuit Fault
HTR12 = Bank 1 Downstream O2S Heater Control
HTR12F = Bank 1 Downstream O2S Heater Circuit Fault
HTR21 = Bank 2 Upstream O2S Heater Control
HTR21F = Bank 1 Downstream O2S Heater Circuit Fault
HTR22 = Bank 2 Downstream 02S Heater Control
HTR22F = Bank 1 Downstream O2S Heater Circuit Fault
HTRX1 = 02S Upstream Heater Control
HTRX2 = O2S Downstream Heater Control
HUD = Heads Up Display
HUD = Heads Up Display
HVAC = Heater-Vent-Air Conditioning
HVACM = Heater-Vent-Air Conditioning Module
HVI = High Viscosity Index
HVIL = High Voltage Interlock Loop
HVM = Heater Vent Mondule
HW = Heated Windshield
HWFET = Highway Fuel Economy Test (driving schedule)
HYPAS = Hydraulic Power Assisted Steering
Hz = Hertz
IA = Intake Air
IABM = Integrated AirBag Module
IAC = Idle Air Control
IAFM = Integrated Air Fuel Module
IAFS = Integrated Air Fuel System
IAT = Intake Air Temperature
Iatn = International Automotive Technicians Network
IBOB = Intelligent BreakOut Box
IC = Ignition Control
IC = Integrated Circuit
ICA = Injector Cam Actuation
ICC = Intelligent Cruise Control
ICCS = Integrated Chassis Control System
ICDX = Integrated Compact Disc Changer
ICE = Internal Combustion Engine
ICM = Ignition Control Module
ICP = Injection Control Pressure
ICS = Integrated Chassis System
ICWS = Intersection Collision Warning System
ID = Identification
ID = Inside Diameter
IDI = Integrated Direct Ignition
IDIS = International Dismantling Information System
IDM = Ignition Diagnostic Module
IDM = Injector Driver Module
IDS = Integrated Diagnostic Software
IEDIS = Integrated Electronic Distributorless Ignition System
IFES = Integrated Front End System
IFI = Indirect Diesel Injection
IFS = Inertia Fuel Shutoff
IFSM = Integrated Fuel System Module
IGN = Ignition
ILC = Idle Load Compensator
ILEV = Inherently Low Emission Vehicle
illum = Illumination
I/M = Inspection Maintenance
IMA = Integrated Motor Assist
IMDX = Integrated Mini Disc Changer
IMLUT = Inspection/Maintenance Look-Up Table
immo = Immobilizer
IMPR = In-use Monitor Performance Ratio
IMRC = Intake Manifold Runner Control
IMRC F = Intake Manifold Runner Control Fault YES/NO
IMRCM = Intake Manifold Runner Control Monitor Input Bank 1 VOLTS
IMRCM2 = Intake Manifold Runner Control Monitor Input Bank 2 VOLTS
IMS = Inductive Magnetic Saturation
IMS = Instant Mobility System
IMS = (2002 Cadillac Deville) Internal Mode Switch
IMSC = Intake Manifold Swirl Control
IMSC F = Intake Manifold Swirl Control Fault
IMT = Intake Manifold Tuning
IMTD = Intake Manifold Temperature Differential
IMTV = Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Control %
IMTVF = Intake Manifold Tuning Valve Fault
in = Inch(es)
inadv = Inadvertant
inc = Increment
INCA = In-Car Aquisition
incand = Incandescent
infl = Inflatable
init = Initial
INJ = Injection
INJ = Injector
INJ1F-8F = Fuel Injector Primary Fault Cylinders 1 thru 8
INJ9F-lOF = Fuel Injector Primary Fault Cylinders 9 and 10
INP = Input
inst = Instant
int = Interior
INT = Integrator (replaced with ST FUEL TRIM)
I/O = In/Out
IOC = Instant Oil Change
I/P = Instrument Panel
IPC = Instrument Panel Cluster
IPEC = Instrument Panel Electrical Center
IPM = Instrument Panel Module
IPM = Integrated Power Module
IPR = Injector Pressure Regulator
IRDS = Independant Rear Drive Suspension
IRQ = Interrupt Request
IRS = Independant Rear Suspension
ISA = Integrated Starter-Alternator
ISAD = Integrated Starter Alternator Damper
ISB = Interact System B
ISC = Idle Speed Control
ISG = Integrated Starter-Generator
ISI = Ion Sensing Ignition
ISO = Interior Systems Optimization
ISO = International Organisation for Standardisation
iso = Isolation
ISS = Input Shaft Speed
ITARDA = Institute for Traffic Acccident Research and Data Analysis
ITTB = Idle Time To Boil
ITTR = Inflatable Tubular Torso Restraint
ITS = Idle Tracking Switch
IVC = Integral Vapour Canister
IVCS = Integrated Vehicle Control System
IVI = Intelligent Vehicle Initiative
IVIS = In Vehicle Information System
IVMS = In Vehicle Monitoring System
IVS = Idle Validation Switch
IVSC = Integrated Vehicle Speed Control
i-VTEC = Intelligent Variable (valve) Timing (and lift) Electronic Control
IWC = Inertia Weight Class
JARI = Japan Automotive Research Institute
JTEC = Jeep, Truck Engine Control
JTEC = Joint Transmission-Engine Controller
KAM = Keep Alive Memory
KAPWR = Keep Alive power
KDD = Keyboard Display Driver
kg = Kilogram
kg/h = Kilograms per Hour
kHz = Kilohertz
km = Kilometer
km/h = Kilometers per Hour
km/l = Kilometers per Litre
KOEO = Key On Engine Off
KOER = Key On Engine Running
kPa = Kilopascal
KS = Knock Sensor
KS1 V = Knock Sensor Input Bank 1 VOLTS
KS2 V = Knock Sensor Input Bank 2 VOLTS
Kv = Kilovolts
L = Liter(s)
L4 = Four Cylinder Inline Engine
LATCH = Lower Anchors and Tethers for CHildren
LB = Long Box, Long Bed
LCD = Liquid Crystal Diode (as in LCD display)
LCM = Lighting Control Module
LDAS = Lane Departure Avoidance System
LDCL = Left Door Control Locking
LDCM = Left Door Control Module
LDDT = Light Duty Diesel Truck
LDGT = Light Duty Gasoline (fueled) Truck
LDM = Lamp Driver Module
LDP = Leak Detection Pump
LDR = Low Data Rate
lduty = Light Duty
LEADER = Low Emissions Advanced Engine Range
LED = Light Emitting Diode
LEP = Light Emitting Polymer
LEV = Low Emissions Vehicle
LF = Left Front
LFC = Lamp Fault Code
LFC = Low Fan Control
LFCF = Low Speed Fan Control Fault
LFWS = Left Front Wheel Speed
LFCS = Low Flow Cooling System
LFP = Low Fuel pump
LGM = Lift Gate Module
LH = Left Hand
LIE = Laterally Inclined Engine
L/M = Litres Per Minute
lm = Lumens
LMD = Left Mid Door
LNG = Liquid Natural Gas
LO = Low
LOMA = Lifter Oil Manifold Assembly
LONGFT1 = Long Term Fuel Trim Bank 1 %
LONGFT2 = Long Term Fuel Trim Bank 2 %
LOS = Limited Operation Strategy
LPA = Low Pressure Accumulator
LPG = Liquified Petroleum Gas
LPM = Litres Per Minute
LPO = Limited Production Option
LPS = Low Pressure Sensor
LR = Left Rear
LR = Loaded Radius
LRA = Latching Rocker Arm
LRD = Left Rear Door
lrn = Learn
LSD = Limited Slip Differential
LSEGR = Linear Solenoid Exhaust Gas Recirculation
LSP and BV = Load Sensing Proportioning and Bypass Valve
LSUV = Luxury Sport Utility Vehicle
LT = Left
LT = Long Term (Fuel Trim)
LTA = Low Temperature Aftercooling
LTD = Long-Travel Dampened (clutch)
LTPI = Low Tyre Pressure Indicator
LTPWS = Low Tyre Pressure Warning System
LUS = Lock-Up Solenoid (see TCC)
LV8 = Load Variable 8 Cylinder
LVDT = Linear Variable Differential Transducer
LVL = Level
LWB = Long WheelBase (see LB)
MAF = Mass Air Flow
malf = Malfunction
MALL = Multifunction Alarm Lighting and Locking
MAN = Manufacturer
MAP = Manifold Absolute Pressure
Map = Large folded piece of colourful paper
MAT = Manifold Air Temperature
MC = Measuring Core
MC = Mixture Control
MCM = Message Center Module
MCNU = Multiband Configurable Networking Units
MCU = Microprocessor Control Unit
MD = Mini Disc
MD = Modulated Displacement
MDP = Manifold Differential Pressure
MDS(2) = Mopar Diagnostic System
MDX = Mini Disc Changer
MECS = Mazda Electronic Control System
med = Medium
MEM = Memory
MEMCAL = Memory Calibration
MFC = Medium Speed Fan Control ON/OFF
MFCF = Medium Speed Fan Control Fault YES/NO
MFI = Multiport Fuel Injection
MFI = Multi Function Indicator
MGMT = Management
MIC = Mechanical Instrument Cluster
MID = Midrange
MID = Monitor Identification
MIL = Malfunction Indicator Lamp
MIN = Minimum
MIN = Minute
MIN = Mobile Identification Number
MIP = Mixer Inlet Pressure
ML = Manual Longitudinal
MLP(s) = Manual Lever Position (sensor)
mm = Millimetre
mm3 = Cubic Millimetre(s)
MMC = Manifold Mounted Converter
mmhg = Millimeters of mercury
MMM = Memory Mirror Module
MMT = Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl
mod = Module
mon = Monitor
MPa = Megapascal
MPFI = Multiport Fuel Injection
ms = Millisecond
MSFF = Miles Since First Fail
MSLF = Miles Since Last Fail
MSM = Memory Seat Module
MSO = Mixed Signal Oscilloscope
MSRP = Manufacturers Suggested Retail Price
MST = Manifold Surface Temperature
MSVA = Magnetic Steering Variable Assist
M/T = Manual Transmission/Transaxle
MTBE = Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
MTBF = Mean Time Between Failures
MTV = Manifold Tuning Valve
MV = Megavolt
Mv = Millivolt
MVLPS = Manual Valve Lever Position Sensor
MVSA = Motor Vehicle Safety Act
MVSS = Motor Vehicle Safety Standards
MY = Model Year
NAAO = North American Automotive Operations
NAES = North American Export Sales
NAICC = Navigation-Aided Intelligent Cruise Control
NATS = Nissan Anti-Theft System
NC = Normally Closed
NCAP = New Car Assessment Program
NDH = Navigation Display Head
NEG = Negative
NEU = Neutral
NFF = No Fault Found
NG = Natural Gas
NGS = New Generation STAR (Self Test Automatic Readout)
NGSC = Next Generation Speed Control
NGTP = Next Generation Telematics Protocol
NGV = Natural Gas Vehicle
NGV = New Generation Vehicle
NGVM = Natural Gas Vehicle Module
NHTSA = National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NI = Neutral Idle
NiMH = Nickel Metal Hydride
NLGI = National Lubricating Grease Institute
N-m = Newton Meters
NO = Normally Open
NOx = Nitrogen Oxides
NoVRAM = Non Volatile Random Access Memory
NPF = No Problem Found
NPTC = National Pipe Thread Coarse
NPTF = National Pipe Thread Fine
NSBU = Neutral Safety Back Up
NV = Night Vision
NVH = Noise, Vibration and Harshness
NVLD = Natural Vacuum Leak Detection
NVRAM = Non Volatile Random Access Memory
NYCC = New York City Cycle
O2 = Oxygen
O2S = Oxygen Sensor
OAD = Overrunning Alternator Decoupler
OAP = Overrunning Alternator Pulley
OASIS = Online Automotive Service Information System
OASIS = Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards.
OBD = On Board Diagnostics
OBDII / OBD2 = On Board Diagnostics, Generation 2
OC = Oxidation Catalyst Only
OCC = Output Circuit Check
OCR = Oil Control Ring
OCS = Occupant Classification Sensor
OCS = Opportunity Charge Station
OD = Outside Diameter
OD = Overdrive
ODM = Output Drive Module
ODO = Odometer
OE = Original Equipment
OEM = Original Equipment Manufacturer
OHC = Overhead Camshaft
OL = Open Loop
OLED = Organic Light Emitting Diode
OPR = Over Pressure Relief
ORC = Oxidation Reduction Converter
ORC = Occupant Restraint Controller
ORVR = On-board Refueling Vapour Recovery
OSC = Output State Check
OSC = Output State Control
OSGI = Open-Service Gateway Interface
OSS = Output Shaft Speed
OTC = Overhead Trip Computer
OTIS = Overhead Travel Information System
OTM = Output Test Monitor
PAB = Passenger Air Bag
PADS = Passenger Airbag Disarm Switch
PAG = Polyalkylene Glycol
PAG =  (Ford) Premier Automotive Group
PAIR = Pulsed Secondary Air Injection
PASE = PAssive Start and Entry system
PASM = Porche Active Steering Management
PASS = Passenger
PASS = Personalized Automotive Security System
PATS = Passive Anti-Theft System
PB = Power Brakes
PC = Pressure Control
PCB = Printed Circuit Board
PCI = Programmable Communications Interface
PCI = Programmable Controller Interface
PCM = Power Control Module
PCM = Powertrain Control Module
PCS = Pre-Crash Sensor
PCS = Pressure Control Solenoid
PCV = Positive Crankcase Ventilation
PDC = Park Distance Control
PDC = Parts Distribution Center
PDC = Power Distribution Center
PDS = Passenger Door Switch
PDS = Portable Diagnostic Software
PDV = Parcel Delivery Van
PEB = Power Electronics Bay
PEM = Proton Electric Membrane
PEMFC = Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
PEP = Peripheral Expansion Port
PFE = Pressure Feedback EGR
PFI = Port Fuel Injection
PFM = PDS File Manager
PFS = Purge Flow Sensor
PHEV = Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
PHT = Parallel Hybrid Truck
PID = Parameter Identification
PIM = Power Inverter Module
PIP = Profile Ignition Pickup (replaced with CKP)
PKE = Passive Keyless Entry
PLL = Phase Locked Loop
PM = Permanent Magnet
PMD = Pump Mounted Driver
PMV = Pressure Modulator Valve
P/N = Part Number
PNP = Park/Neutral Position
POA = Pilot Operated Absolute
pos = Position
POS = Positive
POT = Potentiometer
P-PC = Pocket Personal Computer
ppm = Parts Per Million
PPS = Passenger Presence Sensor
PRNDL = Park Reverse Neutral Drive Low
PROM = Programmable Read Only Memory
PROX = PReferential OXidation
PS = Power Steering
PSA = Pressure Switch Assembly
PSCM = Passenger Seat Control Module
PSCM = Power Steering Control Module
PSD = Power Sliding Door
psgr = Passenger
psi = Pounds Per Square Inch
psia = Pounds Per Square Inch Absolute
psig = Pounds Per Square Inch Gauge
PSIR = Passenger Supplemental Inflatable Restraint
PSM = Passenger Seat Module
PSOM = Programmable Speedometer/Odometer Module
PSP = Power Steering Pressure
PSV = Public Service Vehicle
PTC = Pending Trouble Code
PTC = Positive Temperature Coefficient
PTO = Power Takeoff
PTOX = Periodic Trap Oxidizer
PTU = Part Throttle Unlock
PWM = Pulse Width Modulation
PWR = Power
PZEV = Partial Zero Emision Vehicle
PZM = Platform Zone Module
QDM = Quad Driver Module
QDR = Quality, Durability, Reliability
QVM = Qualified Vehicle Modifier
R/A = Resume or Accelerate
RABS = Rear Antilock Brake System
RAC = Remote Accessory Controller
RAM = Random Access Memory
RAM = Ride Air Module
RAM = Remote Anti-theft Module
RAP = Retained Access Power
RAV = Remote Activation Verification
RBC = Rotary Blade Coupling
RCC = Rear Climate Control
RCC = Remote Climate Control
RCM = Restraint Control Module
RCDLR = Remote Control Door Lock Receiver
RDCM = Right Door Control Module
RDM = Rear Door Module
RDS = Radio (broadcast) Data System
RDS = Radio Display System
rec = Receive
recal = Recalibrate, Recalibration
RECIS = Remote Entry Control and Immobilizer System
REDOX = Reduction Oxidation Catalytic Converter
REEGR = Rotary Electric EGR
REF = Reference
RESC = Remote Emergency Satellite Unit
REX = Rear Exchanger
RF = Radio Frequency
RF = Right Front
RFA = Remote Function Actuator
RFF = Roller Finger Followers
RFI = Radio Frequency Interference
RFID = Radio Frequency Identification
RFWS = Right Front Wheel Speed
RH = Right Hand
RIM = Radio Interface Module
RIM = Rear Integration Module
RKE = Remote Keyless Entry
Rly = Relay
RM = Relay Module
RMD = Right Mid Door
ROM = Read Only Memory
RPA = Rear Parking Assist
RPM = Remote Power Module
RPM = Revolutions Per Minute
RPO = Regular Production Option
R&R = Remove and Replace
RR = Right Rear
RRD = Right Rear Door
RSA = Rear Seat Audio
RSC = Roll Stability Control
RSE = Roadside Equipment
RSS = Reverse Sensing System
RSS = Road Sensing Suspension
R/T = Road/Track
RT = Right
RTC = Real-Time Clock
RTD = Real Time Dampening
RTN = Return
RTT = Reconfigurable Telltale
RTTP = Rotunda Technician Tool Program
RTV = Room Temperature Vulcanizing
RV = Recreational Vehicle
RVAC = Rear Video/Audi/HVAC Module
RVP = Reid Vapour Pressure
RWAL = Rear Wheel Anti-lock
RWD = Rear Wheel Drive
RWS = Rear-Wheel Steer
S4WD = Selectable Four Wheel Drive
SAE = Society of Automotive Engineers
SAF = Stabilized Aluminum Foam
SAS = Side Auxiliary Sensor
SATC = Semi-Auto Temperature Control module
SAVDAS = Stand-Alone Vehicle Data Aquisition System
SAW = Spark Angle Word
SB = Short Box, Short Bed
SBDS = Service Bay Diagnostic System
SBEC = Single Board Engine Controller (replaced with PCM)
SBM = Standard Body Module
SBS = Supercharger Bypass Solenoid
SBT = Serial Bus Traveller
SC = Supercharger
SCA = Supplemental Coolant Additive
SCB = Supercharger Bypass
SCCA = Sports Car Club of America
SCI = Serial Communications Interface
SCIL = Steering Column/Instrument panel Lighting
SCM = Seat Control Module
SCP = Standard Corporate Protocol
SCS = Side Crash Sensor
SCTM = Seatbelt Timer Control Module
SCV = Speed Controlled Volume
SDARS = Satellite Digital Audio Radio System
SDL = Serial Data Link
SDM = Sensing and Diagnostic Module
SDRS = Satellite Digital Receiver System
SDS = Satellite Discriminating Sensor
SDS = Shock Dampening System
SDV = Spark Delay Valve
SEFI = Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection (replaced with SFI)
SEMA = Specialty Equipment Market Association
SEO = Special Equipment Option
SES = Service Engine Soon (replaced with MIL)
SFI = Sequential (multiport) Fuel Injection
SGCM = Starter/Generator Control Module
SHO = Super High Output
SI = System International
SIAB = Side Impact Air Bag
SIACM = Side Impact Air Bag Control Module
SIG RTN = Signal Return
SIL = Shift Indicator Lamp
SIR = Supplemental Inflatable Restraint
SIS = Side Impact Sensor
SKIM = Sentry Key Imobilizer Module
SLB = Smart Junction Box
SLA = Short/Long Arm suspension
SMCC = Stepper Motor Cruise Control
SMEC = Single Module Engine Controller (replaced with PCM)
SMPI = Sequential Multi-Port Injection
SNSR = Sensor
SO2 = Sulphur Dioxide
SOC = State Of Charge
SOD = Side Object Detection
SOH = State of Health
sol = Solenoid
S/P = Series/Parallel
SP = Splice Pack
SPD = Speed
SPI = Serial Peripheral Interface
SPL = Smoke Puff Limiter
SPS = Service Programming System
SPS = Speed Signal
SPO = Service Parts Operations
SPOUT = Spark Output
SPRK_ACT = Spark Advance Actual
SPS = Service Programming System
SRC = Selective Ride Control
SRG = Solar-Reflective Glass
SRI = Service Reminder Indicator
SRI = Short Ram Intake
SrPP = Self-reinforced PolyPropylene
SRS = Supplemental Restraint System
SRW = Single Rear Wheel
SS = Shift Solenoid
SS = Speed Signal
SSM = Suspension Steering Module
SSS = Speed Sensitive Steering
SSV = Shift Solenoid Valve
ST = Scan Tool
ST = Short Term (Fuel Trim)
STAR = Self Test Automatic Readout (tester)
STAR = Stolen Auto Recovery System
STC = Snap To Connect
STC = Step Timing Control
stdby = Standby
STI = Self Test Input
STID = Station Identification
STL = Service Transmission Lamp
STO = Self Test Output
STS = Service Technicians Society
SULEV = Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle
SUV = Sport Utility Vehicle
SVO = Straight Vegetable Oil
SVS = Service Vehicle Soon
SVT = Special Vehicle Team
S/W = Software
sw = Switch
SWB = Short WheelBase (see SB)
SWC = Steering Wheel Controls
SWPS = Steering Wheel Position Sensor
SWS = SideWall tension Sensor
SXR = Send and Receive
syn = Synchronize
sys = System
TAB = Thermactor Air Bypass (replaced with AIRB)
TAC = Throttle Actuator Control
TACH = Tachometer
TACM = Throttle Actuator Control Module
TAD = Thermactor Air Divert (replaced with AIRD)
TAP = Transmission Adaptive Pressure
TAS = Trap Alert System
TB = Throttle Body
TBC = Truck Body Controller (or Computer)
TBI = Throttle Body Fuel Injection
TC = Transmission Control
TC = Turbocharger
TCC = Torque Converter Clutch
TCCS = Toyota Computer Controlled System
TCIL = Transmission Control Indicator Lamp
TCM = Transmission Control Module
TCS = Traction Control System
TCS = Transmission Control Switch
TDC = Top Dead Center
TDI = Toyota Direct Ignition
TED = Thermo Electric Device
tele = Telescope
TEMP = Temperature
TFI = Thick Film Integrated (replaced with DI)
TFP = Transmission Fluid Pressure
TFT = Transmission Fluid Temperature
TGS = Top Gear Switch
THEMIS = Thermal Management Intelligent System
THM = Turbo Hydra-Matic
THS = Transmission Hydraulic Switch
TID = Test Identification
TIIS = Thermal Imaging Inspection Station
TIM = Tyre Inflation Module
TIM = Tyre Inflation Monitor
TIS = Techline Information System
TOC = Transmission Oil Cooler
torq = Torque
TOT = Transmission Oil Temperature
TP = Throttle Position
TPA = Terminal Positive Assurance
TPI = Tuned Port Injection
TPMS = Tyre Pressure Monitor System
    Throttle Position Sensor
TR = Transmission Range
T-RAC = Trailer Rotating Air Chamber
trans = Transmission/Transaxle
TRDU = Trailer Remote Diagnostic Unit
TRS = Transmission Range Sensor
TSA = Thorax Side Airbag
TSB = Technical Service Bulletin
TSI = Two Speed Idle
TSS = Transmission Speed Sensor
TSS = Turbine Shaft Speed
TT = Telltale Lamp
TTM = Tilt and Telescope Module
TTS = Transmission Temperature Switch (replaced with TOT)
TV = Television
TV = Throttle Valve
TVAM = Televison Antenna Module
TVR = Turbine Vane Regulator
TVRS = Television and Radio Suppression
TVS = Thermal Vacuum Switch
    Thermal Vacuum Valve
TWC = Three Way Catalyst
TWC+OC = Three Way Catalyst + Oxidation Catalyst
twtr = Tweeter
TXV = Thermal Expansion Valve
UASID = Units And Scaling Identification
UART = Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter
UD = Underdrive
UDDS = Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
U/H = Underhood
U/HEC = Underhood Electrical Center
UIDI = Up-Integrated Direct Ignition
ULEV = Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle
ULSD = Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel
    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
unlk = Unlock
USCAR = United States Council for Automotive Research
UTD = Universal Theft Deterrent
UTQG = Uniform Tyre Quality Grading
 V = Volts
V2G = Vehicle to Grid
VAC = Vacuum
VAC = Vehicle Access Code
VACS = Vehicle Access Control System
VAF = Vane Air Flow
VAF = Volume Air Flow
VAPS = Variable Assist Power Steering
VAPS = Virtual Automotive Prototyping System
VASCO = Vehicle Application-Specific Computer
VAT = Vane Air Temperature (replaced with IAT)
VAT = Visual Authoring Tool
VATS = Vehicle AntiTheft System
VB = Valve body
VCC = Viscous Converter Clutch
VCI = Vehicle Communication Interface
VCIM = Vehicle Communication Interface Mode
VCL = Vehicle Communication Link
VCM = Variable Cylinder Management
VCM = Vehicle Communication Module
VCM = Vehicle Control Module
VCRM = Variable Control Relay Module
VCT = Variable Camshaft Timing
VDCS = Vehicle Dynamics Control System
V dif = Voltage Difference
VDIS = Vehicle Diagnostic Information System
VDM = Vehicle Dynamics Module
VDM = Vehicle Dynamics Monitor
VDOT = Variable Displacement Orifice Tube
VDP = Vehicle Dynamics Processor
VDR = Vehicle Data Recorder
VDR = Vehicle Dealer Recorder
VDS = Valve Deactivation System
    Vacuum Delay Valve
VECI = Vehicle Emission Control Information
VEDR = Vehicle Event Data Recorder
veh = Vehicle
vel = Velocity
ver = Version
vert = Vertical
VES = Variable Effort Steering
VF = Vacuum Flourescent
VGT = Variable Geometry Turbocharger
VIC = Virtual Image Cluster module
VICS = Vehicle Information Communication System
VIIC = Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Consortium
VIN = Vehicle Identification Number
VIP = Vehicle Intrusion Protection
VIU = Vehicle Interface Unit
VLCM = Variable Load Control Module
VLR = Voltage Loop Reserve
vlv = Valve
VMM = Vehicle Measurement Module
VMRS = Vehicle Maintenance Reporting System
VMV = Vacuum Modulator Valve
VMV = Vapour Management Valve
VNT = Variable Nozzle Turbine
VNT = Variable Nozzle Turbocharger
VOTM = Vacuum Operated Throttle Modulator
VPWR = Vehicle Power
VR = Vacuum Regulator
VREF = Voltage Reference
VRLA = Valve Regulated Lead Acid
VRV = Vacuum Reducer Valve
VRIS = Variable Resonance Induction System
VS = Variable Speed
VSC = Vehicle Stability Control
VSES = Vehicle Stability Enhancement System
vspd = Vehicle speed
VSS = Vehicle Speed Sensor
VSV = Vacuum Solenoid Valve
VTA = Vehicle Theft Alarm
VTD = Vehicle Theft Deterrent
VTEC = Variable (valve) Timing (and lift) Electronic Control
VTSS = Vehicle Theft Security System
VVT-I / VVTI = Variable Valve Timing with Intelligence
    Variable Valve Timing and Lift with Intelligence
w/ = With
WAC = Wide Open Throttle A/C Cutoff
warn = Warning
W/B = Wheelbase
WCF = Wireless Communication Framework
WDS = Workbay Diagnostic System
WDS = Worldwide Diagnostic System
WGC = Wastegate Control
WHL = Wheel
WIF = Water In Fuel (sensor)
w/o = Without
WOT = Wide Open Throttle
W/P = Water Pump
WSM = WorkShop Manual
Wheel Speed Sensor
WU-OC = Warmup Catalyst with Oxidation Catalyst
WU-TWC = Warmup Catalyst with Three Way Catalyst
WVO = Waste Vegetable Oil
WVVWS = Wireless Vehicle to Vehicle Warning System
X-valve = Expansion Valve
xVDS = Extended Vehicle Diagnostic System
ZEV = Zero Emission Vehicle
DISCLAIMER: 이 글은 개인회원이 직접 작성한 글로 내용에 대한 모든 책임은 작성자에게 있으며, 이 내용을 본 후 결정한 판단에 대한 책임은 게시물을 본 이용자 본인에게 있습니다. 라디오코리아는 이 글에 대한 내용을 보증하지 않으며, 이 정보를 사용하여 발생하는 결과에 대하여 어떠한 책임도 지지 않습니다.

| |